**Mechanical Engineering Sample Exam Questions (Part-1)**

**Hydraulics & Hydraulic Machinery**__Scope of hydraulics:__

⬥ Compare the liquid, vapor and gas.

⬥ Define hydraulics and hydraulic machineries.

⬥ Outline the importance of hydraulics and hydraulic machineries.

⬥ Mention the branches of hydraulics.

⬥ Identify different application of hydraulics and hydraulic machineries in engineering field.

__Fluid properties and fluid pressure:__

⬥ List the properties of fluids.

⬥ Define density, specific weight, surface tension, capillary, viscosity and fluid pressure.

⬥ State Pascal’s law of fluid pressure.

⬥ Show the proof of the Pascal’s law of fluid pressure.

⬥ Define atmospheric pressure, gauge pressure and absolute pressure.

⬥ Mention the relation among atmospheric pressure, gauge pressure and absolute pressure.

⬥ Express the derivation of the formulae for finding total pressure on immerged surface at horizontal, inclined and vertical position.

__Buoyancy:__

⬥ Define buoyancy and center of buoyancy.

⬥ State the meaning meta-centre and meta-centric height.

⬥ Mention the conditions of equilibrium of a floating body.

➥ __F____eatures of fluid pressure gauges:__

⬥ State the meaning of pressure gauge.

⬥ Mention the classification of pressure gauges.

⬥ Define manometer.

⬥ Distinguish between simple manometer and differential manometer.

⬥ Mention the working principle of different types of pressure gauges.

⬥ Mention the specific application of different pressure gauges.

➥ __F____luid flow through pipes:__

⬥ State different types of fluid flow.

⬥ State the equation of continuity of flow.

⬥ State flow rate or discharge.

⬥ Compute the formula of flow rate.

⬥ State the equation of continuity of flow

➥ __Concept of Bernoulli’s equation:__

⬥ Define head, pressure head, velocity head, datum head and total head.

⬥ State and interpret the Bernoulli’s equation for flowing liquid.

⬥ Mention the limitation of Bernoulli’s equation.

⬥ Mention the function of venture-meter, orifice-meter and pitot tube.

⬥ Describe the construction and operation of venture-meter, orifice-meter and pitot tube.

⬥ Express the derivation of formula to measure the quantity of liquid flowing through venture-meter.

⬥ Express the derivation of formula to measure the quantity of liquid flowing through orifice-meter.

⬥ Express the derivation of formula to measure the velocity of flowing liquid by the pitot tube.

➥ __F____low through orifices:__

⬥ Define orifice.

⬥ Mention the classification of orifices.

⬥ State hydraulic coefficients.

⬥ Define jet of water, vena-contracta, coefficient of contraction (Cc), coefficient of velocity (Cv), coefficient of discharge (Cd) and coefficient of resistance.

⬥ Relate the Cc, Cv and Cd.

⬥ Calculate different hydraulic coefficients.

⬥ Express the deduction of formulae for finding out the discharge of liquid through various orifices

➥ __F____low through mouthpieces:__

⬥ Define and classify mouthpieces.

⬥ Express the deduction of formulae to calculate discharge through different types of mouthpieces.

⬥ State head losses of flowing liquid in a pipe.

⬥ List the causes of head loss of flowing liquid.

⬥ Express the deduction of formulae to calculate loss of head due to friction, sudden enlargement, sudden contraction and obstruction in pipe.

⬥ Express the deduction of formulae to calculate loss of head due to friction (Darcy’s and Cheay’s formulae)

➥ __F____low through notches and Weirs:__

⬥ Define notches and Weirs.

⬥ Identify different types of notches and Weirs with sketches such as rectangular notch v-notch trapezoidal notch.

⬥ Outline the importance of using notches and Weirs.

➥ __C____oncept of viscous flow:__

⬥ Define viscosity.

⬥ Mention the units of viscosity.

⬥ Define ideal fluid, real fluid, Newtonian fluid and non-Newtonian fluids.

⬥ Distinguish between the laminar flow and turbulent flow.

⬥ State Reynold’s number

➥ __A____spect of impact of jets:__

⬥ State impact of jet.

⬥ Express the deduction of formula to calculate the force of a jet impinging on a flat fixed vertical plate, inclined plate and hinged plate

➥ __F____eatures of water turbines:__

⬥ State the meaning of water turbine.

⬥ Mention the classification of water turbine.

⬥ Describe the principle of impulse and reaction water turbine.

⬥ Compare the impulse and reaction turbine.

⬥ Describe the construction of Pelton, Kaplan and Francis water turbine.

⬥ Describe the operation of Pelton, Kaplan and Francis water turbine.

⬥ State the specific speed of turbine.

⬥ Describe the governing system of impulse and reaction turbines.

⬥ Define draft tube and its classification.

➥ __F____eatures of reciprocating pumps:__

⬥ Define reciprocating pump.

⬥ Mention the classification of reciprocating pumps.

⬥ Describe the construction of various reciprocating pumps.

⬥ Describe the operation of different types of reciprocating pumps.

⬥ State the meaning of slip of reciprocating pumps.

⬥ Mention the function of air vessel in single acting reciprocating pump.

⬥ Describe the operation of suction side and discharge side air vessel in a single acting reciprocating pump.

⬥ Express the deduction of formula to calculate the discharge of reciprocating pumps.

➥ __F____eatures of centrifugal pumps:__

⬥ State the meaning of centrifugal pump.

⬥ Mention the classification of centrifugal pumps.

⬥ Compare the centrifugal and reciprocating pumps.

⬥ Describe the construction of various centrifugal pumps.

⬥ Describe the operation of different types of centrifugal pumps.

⬥ State the meaning of cavitation of centrifugal pumps.

⬥ Express the deduction of formula to calculate discharge of centrifugal pumps.

⬥ Power required to drive a centrifugal pump.

⬥ Mention the efficiencies of centrifugal pump.

➥ __F____eatures of rotary pumps:__

⬥ State what is meant by rotary pump.

⬥ Mention the classification of rotary pumps.

⬥ Describe the construction of various rotary pumps.

⬥ Describe the operation of different types of rotary pumps.

⬥ List the advantages and disadvantage of rotary pumps over centrifugal and reciprocating pumps.

⬥ Mention the application of rotary pumps.

➥ __F____eatures of hydraulic devices:__

⬥ State hydraulic devices.

⬥ Identify the hydraulic devices.

⬥ Mention the function of hydraulic devices viz. hydraulic press, hydraulic accumulator, hydraulic intensifier, hydraulic crane, hydraulic lift, etc.

⬥ Describe the construction of various hydraulic devices.

⬥ Describe the operation of different types of hydraulic devices.

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